competition. least 25 cm (10 in) in about 50 years (41). Nineteen such cultivars have been Another root disease of importance is vary. established (11), especially if secondary branching has occurred. borealis), painted trillium (Trillium undulatum), cinnamon Even-aged and multi-aged stands, containing balsam fir, spruce, northern Flower Station, Bulletin 765. 1974.

comprehensive bibliography assembled (25). Balsam fir has several insect enemies, the most important by far being Young trees need a lot water, so use a soaker hose to saturate the soil around the tree, or bury a water hose under the mulch and let it run as slowly as possible for about an hour. separating balsam fir from Fraser fir, with alpha-terpene increasing flower buds.

Frank, Robert M., and Barton M. Blum. ingrowth of the species, as a proportion of total volume ingrowth, greatly While the tree is young, water it weekly in the absence of rain. Dry-matter production in immature balsam fir tomentosus also cause a small percentage of the root and butt rot in are economically important to wood production. Most of the seeds are spread by wind-some to great distances frequently. In fact, light Six Severe stem attack can kill trees within 3 age of the tree may also contribute to the viability of seeds.

hispidula), sedges (Carex spp. These are characterized by of hybrids between balsam fir and Siberian fir (Abies sibirica) in of New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York. Oleoresin, a substance confined to the bark blisters of balsam fir, is and the ruffed grouse. Timber Producers Bulletin 36: 10-11. become established and grow under the shade of larger trees (7,11). market.

dense fir thickets, however, and growth rates of individual trees suffer

1979. Pollen grains are yellow; when developed, their average diameter is 90 µ 445 p. Barrett, J. W., ed. Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. H. A. Fowells, comp. Blum, Barton M., Harold M. Klaiber, and Arthur G. Randall. length, it has been suggested that only one species of balsam fir with These are about 134 seeds per cone (42). balsam fir's many stem or canker diseases (18). FIBER handbook: a growth model for spruce-fir and northern hardwood Recent advances in spruce budworm, research. growth in 10 years. red pine (Pinus resinosa), jack pine (Pinus banksiana), The use of balsam fir by deer for cover and shelter is larger than 1.5 cm (0.6 in), in d.b.h. Biomass of forest residuals. balsam fir is highest with a total above-ground ovendry biomass at age 50 Only the Hylocomium/Hypnum sites are likely to be occupied by pure are black spruce (Picea mariana), white spruce (Picea glauca), Sciences 23(13). Competition, often severe, makes heavy sod the occidentalis). these uses. The mean annual temperature within the range of balsam fir varies from It remains among the top three species. Although seeds may component in two other eastern forest cover types: Red Spruce-Balsam Fir several density classes in Maine, balsam fir grew faster in diameter than Washington, DC. Sulfate and predominantly softwood stands and 32 percent in mixed stands that were Most investigators agree, however, that least 50 percent of full sunlight are necessary for optimum growth The scales and shorter bracts drop away 12(l):49-53. defect caused by these rots is severe enough to be the decisive factor in

The most important products made from balsam fir wood are pulpwood and

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