a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life.
Mayr, Gerald Ronquist, F. 1999. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), The oldest known scoliid wasps (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Scoliidae) from the Jehol biota of western Liaoning, China, Proctotrupoid wasps (Insecta, Hymenoptera) from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning Province, New data of the Mesozoic fossil insects from Laiyang in Shandong, A new genus of Scoliidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) from the lower Cretaceous of northeast China, New fossil Lepidoptera (Insecta: Amphiesmenoptera) from the middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Northeastern China, On some tertiary sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) from Colorado, Razvitie I smena melovykh I kainozoiskikh faunisticheskikh kompleksov (trakheinye i khelitserovye) [Development and changes of the Cretaceous and Cenozoic faunal assemblages (Tracheata and Chelicerata)], Ecological history of the terrestrial Insects, Arthropods in contemporary and some fossil resins, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.616.5680, A review of preservational variation of fossil inclusions in amber of different chemical groups, Paleobiology of Predators, Parasitoids, and Parasites: Death and Accomodation in the Fossil Record of Continental Invertebrates, History and evolution of pollination in angiosperms, True flies (Insecta: Diptera) from the late Eocene insect limestone (Bembridge Marls) of the Isle of Wight, England, UK, Aphids, true hoppers, jumping plant-lice, scale insects, true bugs and whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera) from the Insect Limestone (latest Eocene) of the Isle of Wight, UK, The beetle (Coleoptera) fauna of the Insect Limestone (late Eocene), Isle of Wight, southern England.
Zoologica Scripta 29:319-345.
2018. Annals Of The Entomological Society Of America 82(6):663-673.
Linnaeus Tercentenary: Progress in Invertebrate Taxonomy. 1995. Some taxa previously thought to be relictual or extinct by the end of the Cretaceous (Angarosphecidae, Archaeoscoliinae, some Diapriidae) are present and sometimes abundant in the early Eocene. 2019. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. and Lebeis, Sarah L. European authorities tend to assign few families to the group (less than 20 according to some), while those of South America tend to assign more. The peak in North American ichneumonid species richness lies between 38° and 48°N, Invertebrates, mainly insects, from the freshwater, lower Cretaceous, Koonwarra Fossil Bed (Korumburra Group), South Gippsland, Victoria, Plants and invertebrates from the lower Cretaceous Koonwarra Fossil Bed, South Gippsland, Victoria, Association of Australian Palaeontologists, Genera of the parasitoid wasp family Monomachidae (Hymenoptera: Diaprioidea), A new fossil species of the Australian endemic genus, Review of the family Proctorenyxidae (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea), with description of new species from South Korea, The Hymenopteran tree of life: evidence from protein-coding genes and objectively aligned ribosomal data, Fitostratigrafiia paleogena yuzhnogo Sakhalina [Phytostratigraphy of the Paleogene of southern Sakhalin], Trudy Geologicheskogo Instituta Rossiyskoy Akademii Nauk [Proceedings of the Geological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences], Revision of some parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea, Revision of Proctotrupidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) described by Ch. The family-level classification of Diptera and Hymenoptera follow Yeates et al.
(1958). This page is a for this article. Zhang, Qi Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79:245-275. Eozän?). 1999. Chény, Cédric
Quicke, D. L. J., M. G. Fitton, et al. Hymenopterans], Pozdnemezozoiskie nasekomye Vostochnogo Zabaikalya [Late Mesozoic insects of eastern Transbaikalia], Archaeoscoliinae, an extinct subfamily of scoliid wasps (Insecta: Vespida=Hymenoptera: Scoliidae), Superorder Vespidea, Laicharting, 1781.
2018. The most familiar Hymenoptera are the bees, wasps and ants; insects feared by many people because of their stings.
and The Hymenoptera are divided into two suborders: Symphyta (mainly sawflies and horntails) and Apocrita (wasps, ants, bees, and most parasitic forms). 1989. Makarkin, Vladimir N. Check if you have access via personal or institutional login, The wasps, bees and ants (Insecta: Vespida=Hymenoptera) from the Insect Limestone (late Eocene) of the Isle of Wight, UK, Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, New Dinopanorpidae (Insecta: Mecoptera) from the Eocene Okanagan Highlands (British Columbia, Canada; Washington State, USA), New Cimbrophlebiidae (Insecta: Mecoptera) from the early Eocene at McAbee, British Columbia, Canada and Republic, Washington, USA, Seasonality, the latitudinal gradient of diversity, and Eocene insects, Bulldog ants of the Eocene Okanagan Highlands, and the history of the subfamily (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmeciinae), Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Seasonality, montane beta diversity, and Eocene insects: testing Janzen’s dispersal hypothesis in an equable world, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Intercontinental dispersal of giant thermophilic ants across the Arctic during early Eocene hyperthermals, Tertiary giant lacewings (Neuroptera: Polystoechotidae) revision and description of new taxa from western North America and Denmark, Early Eocene insects from Quilchena, British Columbia and their paleoclimatic implications, Fossil palm beetles refine upland winter temperatures in the early Eocene Climatic Optimum, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, New early Eocene Siricomorpha (Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Pamphiliidae, Siricidae, Cephidae) from the Okanagan Highlands, western North America, The ecology and distribution of Cenozoic Eomeropidae (Mecoptera), and a new species of, Fossil Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in early Eocene amber of France, Adaptive radiation in socially advanced stem-group ants from the Cretaceous, Cretaceous/Paleogene floral turnover in Patagonia: drop in diversity, low extinction, and a, Cretaceous braconid wasps from the Magadan Province of Russia, Classification of the Cephidae (Hymenoptera Symphyta), Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, Plant ecological strategies shift across the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary, Synopsis and classification of Formicidae, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America, Mammal dispersal at the Paleocene/Eocene boundary, Phylogenomic insights into the evolution of stinging wasps and the origins of ants and bees, Healed wounds and galls on fossil leaves from the Wilcox deposits (Eocene) of western Tennessee, The first Mesozoic Vespidae from the Southern Hemisphere, Botswana, Diversity of Hymenoptera and other insects in the late Cretaceous (Turonian) deposits at Orapa, Botswana: a preliminary review, Divergence estimates and early evolutionary history of Figitidae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea), On the Baltic amber collection of Platygastridae and Diapriidae, Small but not ephemeral: newly discovered species of Aphelinidae and Trichogrammatidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from Eocene amber, A survey of social insects in the fossil record, Fossil insects, with special reference to those of Tertiary lake deposits of the Similkameen Valley, BC, Proceedings of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, Biology of the Trigonalyidae (Hymenoptera), with notes on the vespine parasitoid, Phylogenetic revision of the parasitoid wasp family Trigonalidae (Hymenoptera), Studies in fossil amber, with particular reference to the Cretaceous of New Jersey, Composition and dynamics of the great Phanerozoic evolutionary floras, Some fossil arthropods from Florissant, Colorado, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Fossil insects in the United States National Museum, Proceedings of the United States National Museum.
Goulet, H. and J. T. Huber.
Gumovsky, Alex Marion, Zachary Nel, André
and Archibald, S. Bruce Saini, M. S. 1986.
Lohrmann, Volker Perkovsky, E. E. Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of
We provide an overview of the Okanagan Highlands Hymenoptera to family level and in some cases below that, with a minimum of 25 named families and at least 30 when those tentatively assigned or distinct at family level, but not named are included. Zootaxa 1668:1766. Agriculture Canada Research Branch Monograph no. Journal Of Zoology 218(2):247-276.
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