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Lahore is home to numerous monuments from the Mughal Dynasty, Sikh Empire, and British Raj. While much of Lahore's Mughal era fabric lay in ruins by the time of his arrival, Ranjit Singh's army's plundered most of Lahore's most precious Mughal monuments, and stripped the white marble from several monuments to send to different parts of the Sikh Empire. Lahore hosts some of Pakistan's oldest and best educational institutes: Pakistan playing against Argentina in 2005. [38] Under the rule of Kabir Khan Ayaz, Lahore was virtually independent from the Delhi Sultanate. [18] Two-thirds of shops, and 80% of Lahore's factories belonged to the Hindu and Sikh community. [16] The largest of Lahore's Mughal monuments was raised during his reign, the Badshahi Mosque in 1673, as well as the iconic Alamgiri gate of the Lahore Fort in 1674. In the past five years, the city’s population rose by another 2 million, representing an annual change of just under 4.4% per year. [38], By the end of the 18th century, the city's population drastically declined, with its remaining resident's living within the city walls, while the extramural suburbs lay abandoned, forcing travelers to pass through abandoned and ruined suburbs for a few miles before reaching the city's gates. Tourists come to see things like the Walled City of Lahore, the Lahore Fort, the Sheesh Mahal, and the Shalimar Gardens. [136], Sikh rule left Lahore with several monuments, and a heavily altered Lahore Fort. [18] On 17 August 1947, Lahore was awarded to Pakistan on the basis of its Muslim majority in the 1941 census, and was made capital of the Punjab province in the new state of Pakistan. There are 246,458 auto rickshaws, often simply called autos, in the city. He renovated large portions of the Lahore Fort with luxurious white marble and erected the iconic Naulakha Pavilion in 1633. The history of the city stretches back so far into antiquity that its true origin story is hard to sort out. After independence, Lahore slowly regained its significance as an economic and cultural centre of western Punjab. It is located on the upper Indus plain on the Ravi River. [38], Nader Shah's brief invasion of the Mughal Empire in early 1739 wrested control away from Zakariya Khan Bahadur. [38] The weakened city then fell into obscurity, and was captured once more by the Khokhars in 1394. [26][27] Another theory suggests the city's name may derive from the word Lohar, meaning "blacksmith. [36], Ptolemy mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla situated near the Chenab and Ravi Rivers which may have been in reference to ancient Lahore, or an abandoned predecessor of the city. [111], The city's record high temperature was 48.3 °C (118.9 °F), recorded on 30 May 1944. Rebuilding efforts under Ranjit Singh and his successors were influenced by Mughal practices, and Lahore was known as the 'City of Gardens' during the Ranjit Singh period. [38] Khokhars seized Lahore in 1342,[55] but the city was retaken by Ghazi Malik's son, Muhammad bin Tughluq. [175] Shopping centers and public buildings also install Christmas installations to celebrate the holiday, even though Christians make up a minority of Lahore's population. There are scammers in Lahore trying to take advantage of tourists, and the situation with scams is similar as in any other country. Lahore Badami Bagh Bus Terminal serves as a hub for intercity bus services in Lahore, served by multiple bus companies providing a comprehensive network of services in Punjab and neighboring provinces. Lahore exerts a strong cultural influence over Pakistan. Considering other places in Pakistan marred by lawlessness, Lahore is a generally safer place to live. [16] Only 9 of the 36 urban quarters around Lahore, known as guzars, were located within the city's walls during the Akbar period. The British also laid the spacious Lahore Cantonment to the southeast of the Walled City at the former village of Mian Mir, where unlike around The Mall, laws did exist against the mixing of different races. Lahore (/ləˈhɔːr/; Punjabi: لہور; Urdu: لاہور‎, pronounced [lɑːˈɦɔːr]) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country's 2nd largest city after Karachi, as well as the 18th largest city proper in the world. [106] The Tomb of Allama Iqbal was built in 1951 to honour the philosopher-poet who provided spiritual inspiration for the Pakistan movement. [86] The British instead laid out their capital city in an area south of the Walled City that would first come to be known as “Donald's Town” before being renamed "Civil Station. 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Constructed in 1673, it was the largest mosque in the world when originally constructed.

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